Purchasing is a critical process for manufacturing companies because of the large contribution raw materials and components make to manufactured item costs, and because inefficient purchasing can have such a negative cost impact due to shortages, over-stocking, and expediting.
Shortages, over-stocking, and expediting costs can be minimized by using MRP to generate purchase orders based on purchase item MRP settings. See the PO Planning video for details.
MRP is a big time saver compared to manual planning and entering POs from scratch. If you can devote the extra time to better item sourcing and pricing, significant savings can flow through to your bottom line. In this video, we show you how POs are sourced, edited, received, and invoiced.
Suppliers are maintained here in the Suppliers screen.
The Supplier Name is the main ID for the supplier and the Trading Name is the name that prints on forms. If this supplier is identified in your outside accounting system with a different ID code, you can enter that code in the X-Ref Code field. That will be the code that is used when you transfer AP vouchers to your accounting system.
If this supplier requires customized forms, on this sub-tab you can specify a custom forms layout for the quote or purchase order.
You can maintain multiple contacts and you can add up to six user-defined fields.
On this tab you can link documents and other files to this supplier.
Item Sources are specified in the Stock Items screen.
Each item's allowable suppliers are designated on this screen. One supplier is designated as the default supplier used by MRP for PO generation.
Here you can enter the supplier's part number and description and unit of measure. If the supplier's unit of measure is different than your stocking unit of measure, a conversion multiplier converts your quantity into the supplier's quantity on the purchase order. Here we are looking at the conversion multiplier wizard, where you enter your quantity and the supplier's quantity to calculate the multiplier value.
Here you can enter the supplier price.
On this tab you can specify a default Manufacturer and Manufacturer Part No and you can list alternative manufacturer part numbers.
DBA includes its own taxation system for tax calculation and reporting.
If you use USA style taxation, the supplier is assigned to a non-taxable or taxable Tax Code associated with a tax jurisdiction, which flows through here to the purchase order header. This determines the tax rate for the purchase order as a whole, which for most manufacturing purposes will be non-taxable.
If you use international style taxation, your default VAT or GST Tax Code flows through to the purchase order header and determines the default tax rate for your line items.
At the line item level, Tax Code exceptions defined in advance against selected items override the header tax code in situations where a different Tax Code and or tax rate is to be applied.
The number of decimal places needed for purchase order costing is established in the Inventory Defaults screen.
Here you can specify the number of decimal places you need for costing. Manufacturing companies tend to need more decimal places on purchase orders, especially when it comes to buying small parts like washers, o-rings, springs, and fasteners.
After purchase orders are generated by MRP, they should be reviewed in the Purchase Orders screen and edited, if needed, then sent to suppliers.
Here we are looking at the Header tab. The supplier address, contact details, and tax code are populated by default from the supplier record. Your address is the default delivery address.
When a purchase order is initially created, it is given a status of 'Opened'. After the PO is printed or Emailed to the supplier, the status changes to 'Printed'. After all the PO lines have been matched in the PO Invoices screen, the status changes to 'Closed'.
Here we are looking at the Details tab where you can review the PO line items. Your quantity, unit cost, and tax amount is displayed in the upper grid. If the line is for a subcontract service, the linked job number and routing sequence are displayed.
The lower panel displays the supplier's quantity, unit of measure, conversion multiplier, supplier price, and, if applicable, the manufacturer and manufacturer part number. All of this information prints on the purchase order so that the supplier is given meaningful values.
If a supplier price record does not exist, the item's last cost is used as the unit cost, to which the conversion multiplier is applied to establish the supplier price.
POs can be Emailed to the supplier or printed out. Like all DBA forms, the PO can be customized either system-wide or for particular suppliers.
POs are received in the PO Receipts screen.
POs are received on this screen. In many cases, the Pre-Fill capability enables all line items to be received in a single batch process.
If the item requires lot or serial number control, lot and serial numbers are entered or generated in this lower panel.
Items are received to stock immediately at PO cost so that there is no delay in issuing the item to jobs or sales orders.
Item labels can be generated as needed directly from receipt transactions and can optionally include PO header information.
Received purchased orders are matched with supplier invoices in the PO Invoices screen.
Here in the header, you enter the invoice number, invoice date, and you click this button to enter shipping charges.
Supplier prices are matched in the grid. The matching process confirms that you were billed properly and closes fully received PO lines. If the price differs from the PO price, the difference is posted to a variance account and you are prompted to update the item's last cost and purchase price.
When all the lines in a PO are closed, the purchase order status changes to 'Closed'.
The final step is to transfer each day's PO invoices as one-line vouchers to your accounting system for payables tracking and processing. See the Financial Transfer presentation for details.
Late purchase orders can be tracked in the PO Schedule screen.
Here you can see PO lines that are late relative to their due dates. If you wish to contact the supplier, you can drill down on the supplier for contact information.
Data views help you to track and report on open and closed purchase orders a variety of ways, with the ability to create a library of your own custom data views.
Here is the PO Lines Summary data view.
Here we are looking at the PO Receipts data view.
And here we are looking at the PO Invoices data view.
A variety of reports enable you to track open POs, POs received not invoiced, and to display purchase history by item or supplier.
DBA's data import utility can be used to import the following purchasing related tables - suppliers, contacts, item suppliers, manufacturers, and manufacturer part numbers.
You export your data into an Excel spreadsheet, and then you edit your data where needed to conform to DBA's requirements.
You then map the DBA fields on this screen to associated spreadsheet columns and then you run the import.
Because MRP automatically generates your purchase orders, you save all the time spent on manual entry, which can now be devoted to better item sourcing and pricing, as well as refining your purchased item MRP settings. In doing so, you will reduce material costs, experience fewer shortages, avoid over-stocking, and cut expediting costs.